Orthognathic Surgery

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Corrective Jaw Surgery in India
India Dental Clinic listing information of orthognathic surgery centers in India and maxillofacial dental surgery hospitals performing corrective jaw surgery in India. Affordable jaw surgery cost in India. Orthognathic Surgery (Corrective Jaw Surgery) is the procedures adopted in a situation when there is need to bring correction in the functional impairment of skeletal jaw and craniofacial deformities, and/or when jaws need to be repositioned that conventional orthodontic treatment alone is unable to achieve. The word "orthognathic" is derived from two Greek words; "ortho" refers to straight, and "gnathic" refers to jaws. The orthognathic surgery is performed by Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons under the settings of maxillofacial dental hospitals in India. These surgical procedures are identified as ostectomy, osteotomy or osteoplasty of the upper jaw (maxilla) and/or the lower jaw (mandible) intended to alter the relationship of the jaws and teeth, to provide a satisfactory, functional dental occlusion within the limits of the available alveolar bone.

Often there are situations when the congenital or developmental defects interfere with the normal development of the face and jaws, as observed by specialist oral surgeons at maxillofacial dental centers in India. These birth defects may interfere with the ability to chew properly, and may also affect speech and swallowing. In addition, trauma to the face and jaws may create skeletal deformities that cause significant functional impairment. Functional deficits addressed by this type of surgery are those that affect the skeletal masticatory apparatus such that chewing, speaking and/or swallowing are impaired. Not only will this allow the teeth to meet correctly and function properly but also it will improve facial appearance as well.

Jaw mismatch and Orthodontics
The jaw mismatch cannot be corrected by orthodontics alone. It is to be understood that the goal of orthodontics (or braces) is to correct the crowding of teeth and abnormal tooth angulations (like malocclusion, protruding, diastemas, etc.) and rotations. An abnormal jaw position is not in the ambit of orthodontics; only orthognathic surgery can fix misaligned jaws. In summary, orthodontics corrects abnormal tooth position; orthognathic surgery corrects abnormal jaw position. In most cases where the jaws are being moved, comprehensive orthodontic movement of the teeth may be necessary at dental clinics India to prepare the teeth for optimal occlusion or biting positions. Following surgery there is often a short period of orthodontics for subtle and fine detailing of the tooth positions.

Symptoms of jaw misalignment
It is often experienced that different misalignments in a jaw's position can produce different symptoms. Some of the conditions that may indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery include, difficulty chewing, or biting food; difficulty swallowing; chronic jaw or jaw joint (TMJ) pain and headache; excessive wear of the teeth; open bite; unbalanced facial appearance from the front, or side; facial injury or birth defects; receding chin; protruding jaw; inability to make the lips meet without straining; chronic mouth breathing and dry mouth; sleep apnea (breathing problems when sleeping, including snoring).

                                                                  Common Dentofacial Deformities

Indications for Orthognathic Surgery
In a situation when there is excess mandibular bone, it causes protrusion of the lower jaw that goes beyond the normal alignment with the upper jaw. This can prevent effective biting and chewing of food and hastens periodontal disease. Temporomandibular joint function and speech may be impaired. Excessive chin hyperplasia or malposition may require a reduction or sliding genioplasty. Retrognathia or micrognathism is a deficiency of the mandibular bone. This does not allow the upper and lower teeth to come together when chewing food and may affect speech. Sleep apnea may also be produced by a retruded or deficient lower jaw. A deficiency of bone supporting the chin may require surgery (genioplasty) to build up the tissue and provide a normal framework for the chin. Hypoplasia is a condition in which the growth of the maxilla does not match that of the lower jaw. There is a collapse of the normal mid-face supporting structures. In addition to causing difficulties with eating and speech, this deficiency may be associated with anomalies of the supporting structures of the nose and cheeks.

X-rays done at India Dental Clinic help identify a problem or show some of the intermediate steps required prior to the surgical end result. In order to reposition the bones in a normal alignment, an osteotomy (bone cut) procedure is adopted in orthognathic surgery. Plates, screws and wires are generally used to hold the bones in their new position. An intermaxillary fixation procedure may also be needed on both jaws for stability. For patients with deformities in both jaws, simultaneous osteotomies may be undertaken to achieve correction. Patients with deficient bone or soft tissues of the face may require Distraction Osteogenesis. A distraction device is applied.  Bone osteotomies are performed. The distraction device is then used to slowly apply a distractive force at the osteotomy site until new bone is formed. Once the desired reconstruction is achieved, the device is left in place until the bone is healed and then the device is removed. This enables a surgeon to elongate a facial bone and the adjacent soft tissue envelope. In a situation when patients have deficient bone tissue, grafts taken from their ribs, hips or skull may be used.  Alloplastic replacement of missing bone may also be required. Orthognathic surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia as an inpatient procedure at dental hospital in India.

The hospital stay of about five days following surgery may be necessary for recovery and observation. The speed of surgical recovery depends on several factors including age and the extent of surgery. Swelling after surgery is common, and a brief period of facial discoloration is also possible. Often orthognathic surgery is easier to recover from than the extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. The stability of the final result depends on the type of operation and an individual’s response to the operation that is observed in follow up visits to the consulting oral surgeon at India Dental Clinic.


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